Archive Page 2

Interlude – AR Apps Lite – Faceswapping

In the post From Magic Lenses to Magic Mirrors and Back Again we reviewed several consumer facing alternate reality phone applications, such as virtual make-up apps In this post, we’ll review some simple face based reality distorting effects with an alternative reality twist.

In the world of social networks, Snapchat provides a network for sharing “disposable” photographs and video clips, social objects that persist on the phone for a short period before disappearing. One popular feature of snapchat comes in the form of its camera and video filters, also referred to as SnapChat Lenses, that can be used to transform or overlay pictures of faces in all sorts of unbecoming ways.

As the video shows, the lenses allow digital imagery to be overlaid on top of the image, although the origin of the designs is sometimes open to debate as the intellectual property associated with facepainting designs becomes contested (for example, Swiped –  Is Snapchat stealing filters from makeup artists?).

Behind the scenes, facial features are captured using a crude form of markerless facial motion capture to create a mesh that acts as a basis for the transformations or overlays as described in From Motion Capture to Performance Capture and 3D Models from Imagery.

Another class of effect supported by “faceswap” style applications is an actual faceswap, in which one person’s face is swapped with another’s – or even your own.

Indeed, New York songwriter Anthony D’Amato went one step further, using the app to swap his face with various celebrities to make a faceswapped video of him singing one of his own songs (/via Digital Trends (World’s first FaceSwap music video is equal parts creepy, impressive).

As well as swapping two human faces, faceswapping can be used to swap a human face with the face of a computer game character. For computer gamers wanting to play a participating role in the games they are playing, features such as EASports GameFace allow users to upload two photos of their face – a front view and a side view – and then use their face on one of the game characters models.

The GameFace interface requires the user to physically map various facial features on the uploaded photograph so that these can then be used to map the facial mesh onto an animated character mesh. The following article shows how facial features registered as a simple mesh on two photographs can be used to achieve a faceswap effect “from scratch” using open source programming tools.

DO: read through the article Switching Eds: Face swapping with Python, dlib, and OpenCV by Matthew Earl to see how a faceswap style effect can be achieved from scratch using some openly available programming libraries. What process is used to capture the facial features used to map from one face to the other? How is the transformation of swapping one face with another actually achieved? What role does colour manipulation play in creating a realistic faceswap effect?

If you would like to try to replicate Earl’s approach, his code is available on Github at matthewearl/faceswap. (A quick search of Github also turns up some other approaches, such as zed41/faceSwapPython and MarekKowalski/FaceSwap.)

Developing algorithms and approaches face tracking is an active area of research, both in academia and commercially. The outputs of academic research are often written up in academic publications. Sometimes, the implementation code is made available by researchers, although at other times it is not. Academic reports should also provide enough detail about the algorithms described for independent third parties to be able to implement, as is the case in Audun Mathias Øygard’s clmtrackr.

DO: What academic paper provided the inspiration for clmtrackr? Try running examples listed on auduno/clmtrackr and read about the techniques used in the posts Fitting faces – an explanation of clmtrackr and Twisting faces: some use cases of clmtrackr. How does the style of writing and explanation in those posts compare to the style of writing used in the academic paper? What are the pros and cons of each style of writing? Who might the intended audience be in each case?

UPDATE: it seems as if Snapchat may doing a line of camera enabled sunglasses – Snapchat launches sunglasses with camera. How much harder is it to imagine the same company doing a line in novelty AR specs that morph those around you in a humorous and amusing way whenever you look at them…?! Think: X-Ray spex adds from the back of old comics…


From Motion Capture to Performance Capture – Sampling Movement in the Real World into the Digital Space

In Augmented TV Sports Coverage & Live TV Graphics and From Sports Tracking to Surveillance Tracking…, we started to see how objects in the real world could be tracked and highlighted as part of a live sports TV broadcast. In this post, we’ll how the movement of objects tracked in the real world, including articulated objects such as people, can be sampled into a digital representation that effectively allows us to transform them into a digital objected that can be used to augment the original scene.

Motion capture, and more recently, performance capture, techniques have been used for several years by the film and computer games industry to capture human movements and use them to animate what amounts to a virtual puppet that can then be skinned as required within an animated scene. Typically, this would occur in post-production, where any latency associated with registering and tracking the actor, or animating and rendering the final scene, could largely be ignored.

However, as motion and performance capture systems have improved, so too has the responsiveness of these systems, allowing them to be used to produce live “rushes” of the captured performance with a rendered virtual scene. But let’s step back in time a little and look back at the origins of motion capture.

Motion capture – or mo-cap – refers to digitally capturing the movement of actors or objects for the purposes of animating digital movements. Markers placed on the actor or object allow the object to be tracked and its trajectory recorded. Associating points on a digital object with the recorded points allows the trajectory to be replayed out by the digital object. Motion capture extends the idea of tracking a single marker that might be used to locate a digital object in an augmented reality setting by tracking multiple markers with a known relationship to each other, such as different points on the body of a particular human actor.

An example of how motion capture techniques are used to animate the movement of objects, rather than actors, is provided by the BLACKBIRD adjustable electric car rig. This rig provides a customisable chassis  – the length of the vehicle can be modified and the suspension is fully adjustable – that can be used to capture vehicle movements, and footage from within the vehicle. Markers placed on the rig are tracked in the normal way and then a digital body shell overlaid on the tracked registration points. The adaptable size of the rig allows marked points on differently sized vehicles to be accurately tracked.  According to its designers, The Mill, an augmented reality application further “allows you to see the intended vehicle in CG, tracked live over the rig on location”.

Motion capture is a relatively low resolution or low fidelity technique that captures tens of points that can be used to animate a relatively large mass, such as a human character. However, whereas markers on human torsos and human limbs have a relatively limited range of free movement, animating facial expressions is far more complex, not least because the human brain is finely tuned to tracking human expressions on very expressive human faces. Which is where performance capture comes in.

Performance capture blends motion capture with at a relatively low resolution, typically, the orientation and relative placement of markers placed around limb joints, with more densely placed markers on the face. Facial markers are tracked using a head mounted camera along with any vocal performance provided by the actor.

Performance capture allows the facial performance of human actors to drive the facial performance of a digital character. By recording the vocal performance alongside the  facial performance, “lip synch” between the voice and mouth movements of the character can be preserved.

As real-time image processing techniques have developed, markerless performance capture systems now exist, particularly for facial motion capture, that do not require any markers to be placed on the actor’s face.

In the case of facial markerless motion capture, multiple facial features are detected automatically and used to implicitly capture the motion of those features relative to each other.

As well as real time mocap and markerless performance capture, realtime previews of the digitally rendered backlot are also possible. Andy Serkis’ tour of his Imaginarium performance capture studio for Empire magazine demonstrates this to full effect.

Virtual cameras are described in more detail in the following clip.

SAQ: What is a virtual camera? To what extent do virtual cameras provide an augmented or mixed reality view of the world?

Originally developed as techniques for animating movements and facial performances in games or films that were then rendered as part of a time-consuming post-production process, the technology has developed to such an extent that motion and performance capture now allow objects and actors to be tracked in realtime. Captured data points can be used to animate the behaviour of digital actors, on digital backlots, providing a preview, in real time, of what the finally rendered scene might actually look like.

For the actor in such a performance space, there is an element of make believe about the setting and the form of the other actors they performing with – the actors can’t actually see the world they are supposed to be inhabiting, although the virtual cameraman, and director, can. Instead, the actors perform in what is effectively a featureless space.

For the making of the film Gravity, a new rig was developed known as the Light Box, that presented the actors with view of the digitally created world they were to be rendered in, as a side of effect of lighting the actors in such a way that it looked as if the light was coming from the photorealistic, digital environment they would be composited with.

SAQ: how might performance capture and augmented reality be used as part of a live theatrical experience? What challenges would such a performance present? Feel free to let your imagination run away with you!

Answer: As Andy Serkis’ Imaginarium demonstrates, facilities already exist where photorealistic digital worlds populated by real world characters can be rendered in real time so the director can get a feel for how the finished scene will look as it is being short. However, the digital sets and animated characters are only observable to third parties, rather than the actual participants in the scene, and then only from the perspective of a virtual camera. But what would it take to provide an audience with a realtime rendered view of an Imaginarium styled theatre set? For this to happen at a personal level would require multiple camera views, one for each seat in the audience, the computational power to render the scene for each member of the audience from their point-of-view, and personal, see-through augmented reality displays for each audience member.

Slightly simpler might be personally rendered views of the scene for each of the actors so that they themselves could see the digital world they were inhabiting, from their perspective. As virtual reality goggles would be likely to get in the way of facial motion capture, augmented reality displays capable of painting the digital scene from the actor’s perspective in real time would be required. For film-makers, though, the main question to ask then would be: what would such immersion mean to the actor’s in terms of their performance? And it’s hard to see what the benefit might be for the audience.

But perhaps there is a middle ground that would work? For example, the used of projection based augmented reality might be able to render digital backlot, at least for a limited field of view. Many stage magicians create illusions that only work from a particular perspective, although it limits the audience size. Another approach might be to use a Pepper’s Ghost style effect, or even hide the cast behind on-stage behind an opaque projection screen and play out their digitally rendered performance on the screen. Live animated theatre, or a digital puppet show. A bit like the Gorillaz…

Motion and performance capture are now an established part of film making, at least for big budget film producers, and digital rushes of digital backlots and digital characters previewed in real-time alongside the actors’ performances. It will be interesting to see the extent to which similar techniques might be used as part of live performance in front of a live audience.

3D Models from Photos

In Hyper-reality Offline – Creating Videos from Photos we saw how a 3D parallax style effect could be used to generate a 3D style effect from a single, static photograph and in Even if the Camera Never Lies, the Retouched Photo Might… we saw how the puppet warp tool could be used to manipulate photographic meshes to reshape photographed items within a digital photograph. But can we go further than that, and generate an actual 3D model from a photo?

In 2007, a Carnegie Mellon research project released an application called Fotowoosh that allowed users to generate a thee dimensional model from a single photograph:

Another approach to generating three-dimensional perspectives that appeared in 2007 built up a three dimensional model by stitching together multiple photographs of the same scene from multiple perspectives. The original Photo-Synth application from Microsoft allowed users to navigate through a series of overlaid but distinct photographs in order to navigate the compound scene.

The current version, which can be found at, generates a photorealistic 3D model that can be smoothly navigated through. Here’s an example:

karen long neck hill tribe by sonataroundtheworld on photosynth

Photosynth is very impressive, but is more concerned with generating navigable 3D panoramas from multiple photographs than constructing digital models from photographs, models that can then be manipulated as an animated digital object.

In 2013, researchers from Tsinghua University and Tel Aviv University demonstrated a more comprehensive tool modeling for generating 3D models from a single photo.

The Fotowoosh website has long since disappeared, and the 3-Sweep software is no longer available, but other applications in a similar vein have come along to replace them. For example, Smoothie-3D allows you to upload a photo and apply a mesh to it that can then be morphed into a 3D model.

So why not grab a coffee, find an appropriate photo, and see if you can create your own 3D model from it.

Smart Hearing

As we have already seen, there are several enabling technologies that need to be in place in order to put together an effective mediated reality system. In a visual augmented reality system, this includes having some sort of device for recording the visual scene, tracking objects within it, rendering augmented features in the scene and the some means of displaying the scene to the user. We reviewed a range of approaches for rendering augmented visual scenes in the post Taxonomies for Describing Mixed and Alternate Reality Systems, but how might we go about implementing an audio based mediated reality?

In Noise Cancellation – An Example of Mediated Audio Reality?, we saw how headphone based systems could be used to present a processed audio signal to a subject directly – a proximal form of mediation such as a head mounted display – or a speaker could be used to provide a more environmental form of mediation rather more akin to a projection based system in the visual sense.

Whilst enabling technologies for video based proximal AR systems are still at the clunky prototype stage, at best, discreet solutions for realtime, daily use, audio based mediation already exist, complemented in recent years by advanced digital signal processing techniques, in the form of hearing aids.

The following promotional video shows how far hearing aids have developed in recent years, moving from simple amplifiers to complex devices combing digital signal processing of the audio environment with integration with other audio generating devices, such as phones, radios and televisions.

To manage the range of features offered by such devices, they are complemented by full featured remote control apps that allow the user to control what they hear, as well as how they hear it – audio hyper-reality:

The following video review of the here “Active Listening” earbuds further demonstrates how “audio wearables” can provide a range of audio effects – and capabilities – that can augment the hearing of a wearer who does not necessarily suffer from hearing loss or some other form of hearing impairment. (If you’d rather read a review of the same device, the Vice Motherboard blog has one – These Earbuds Are Like Instagram Filters for Live Music.)

SAQ: What practical challenges face designers of in-ear, wirelessly connected audio devices?
Answer: I can think of two immediately: how is the wireless signal received (what sort of antenna is required?) and how is the device powered?

Customised frequency response profiles are also supported in some mobile phones. For example, top-end Samsung Android phones include a feature known as  Adapt Sound that allows a user to calibrate their phone’s headphone’s based on a frequency based hearing test (video example).

Hearing aids are typically comprised of several elements: an earpiece that transmits sound into the ear; a microphone that receives the sound; and amplifier that amplifies the sound; and a battery pack that powers the device. Digital hearing aids may also include remote control circuitry to allow the hearing aid to be controlled remotely; circuitry to support digital signal processing of the received sound; and even a wireless receiver capable of receiving and then replaying sound files or streams from a mobile phone or computer.

Digital hearing aids can be configured to tune the frequency response of the device to suit the needs of each individual user as the following video demonstrates.

Hearing aids come in a range of form factors – NHS Direct describes the following:

  • Behind-the-ear (BTE): rests behind the ear and sends sound into the ear through either an earmould or a small, soft tip (called an open fitting)
  • In-the-ear (ITE): sits in the ear canal and the shell of the ear
  • In-the-canal (ITC): working parts in the earmould, so the whole hearing aid fits inside the ear canal
  • Completely-in-the-canal (CIC): fits further into your ear canal than an ITC aid

Age UK further identify two forms of spectacle hearing aid systemsbone conduction devices and air conduction devices – that are suited to different forms of hearing loss:

With a conductive hearing loss there is some physical obstruction to conducting the sound through the outer ear, eardrum or middle ear (such as a wax blockage, or perforated eardrum). This can mean that the inner ear or nerve centre on that ear is in good shape, and by sending sound straight through the bone behind a patient’s ear the hearing loss can effectively be bypassed. Bone Conduction or “BC” spectacle hearing aids are ideal for this because a transducer is mounted in the arm of the glasses behind the ear that will transmit the sound through the bone to the inner ear instead of along the ear canal.

Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when the anatomical site responsible for the deficiency is the inner ear or further along the auditory pathway (such as age related loss or noise induced hearing loss). Delivering the sound via a route other than the ear canal will not help in these cases, so Air Conduction “AC” spectacle hearing aids are utilised with a traditional form of hearing aid discreetly mounted in the arm of the glasses and either an earmould or receiver with a soft dome in the ear canal.

The following video shows how the frames of digital hearing glasses can be used to package the components required to implement to hearing aid.

And the following promotional video shows in a little more detail how the glasses are put together – and how they are used in everyday life (with a full range of digital features included!).

EXERCISE: Read the following article from The Atlantic – “What My Hearing Aid Taught Me About the Future of Wearables”. What does the author think wearable devices need to offer to make the user want to wear them? How does the author’s experience of wearing a hearing aid colour his view of how wearable devices might develop in the near future?

Many people wear spectacles and/or hearing aids as part of their everyday life, “boosting” the perception of reality around them in particular ways in order to compensate for less than perfect eyesight or vision. Advances in hearing aids suggest that many hearing aid users may already be benefiting from reality augmentations that people without hearing difficulties may also value. And whilst wearing spectacles to correct for poor vision is a commonplace, it is possible to wear eyewear without a corrective function as a fashion item or accessory. Devices such as hearing spectacles already provide a means of combining battery powered, wifi connected audio as well as “passive” visual enhancements (corrective lenses). So might we start to see those sorts of device evolving as augmented reality headwear?

Interlude – Animated Colouring Books as An AR Jumping Off Point

Demonstrations such as the Augmented Reality Browser Demo show how browser based technologies can implement simple augmented reality demonstrations. By building on a browser’s ability to access connected camera feeds, we can reuse third party libraries to detect and track registration images contained within the video feed and 3D plotting libraries to render and overlay 3D objects on the tracked image in real time.

But what if we could also capture information from a modified registration image and use that as part of the rendered 3D model?

A research paper by Disney research – Live Texturing of Augmented Reality Characters from Colored Drawings [PDF] – presented at the International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR 2015) describes “an augmented reality coloring book App in which children color characters in a printed coloring book and inspect their work using a mobile device”, since released as the Disney Color and Play app.

But Disney is not the only company exploring augmented reality colouring books…

Another app in a similar vein is produced by QuiverVision (coloring packs) and is available for iOS and Android devices.

And as you might expect, crayon companies are also keen on finding new ways to sell more crayons and have also been looking at augmented reality colouring books, as in the case of Crayola and their ColorALive app.

DO: grab a coffee and some coloured pen or pencils, install an augmented reality colouring book app, print off an AR colouring pack, then colour in your own 3D model. Magic!:-)

Now compare and contrast augmented reality applications in which a registration image, once captured, can be used to trigger a video effect or free running augmented reality animation with augmented reality applications in which a registration image of environmental feature must be detected and tracked continually in terms of the technology required to implement them, the extent to which they transform a visual scene and the uses to which each approach might be put. Try to think of one or two examples where one technique might be appropriate but the other would not when trying to achieve some sort of effect or meet some particular purpose.

Can You Really Believe Your Ears?

In Even if the Camera Never Lies, the Retouched Photo Might… we saw how photos could be retouched to provide an improved version of a visual reality, and in the interlude activity on Cleaning Audio Tracks With Audacity we saw how a simple audio processing tool could be used to clean up a slightly noisy audio track. In this post, we’ll see how particular audio signals can be modified in real time, if we have access to them individually.

Audio tracks recorded for music, film, television or radio are typically multi-track affairs, with each audio source having its own microphone and its own recording track. This allows each track to be processed separately, and then mixed with the other tracks to produce the final audio track. In a similar way, many graphic designs, as well as traditional animations, are constructed of multiple independent, overlaid layers.

Conceptually, the challenge of augmented reality may be likened to adding an additional layer to the visual or audio scene. In order to achieve an augmented reality effect, we might need to separate out a “flat” source such as mixed audio track of a video image into separate layers, one for each item of interest. The layer(s) corresponding to the item(s) of interest may then be augmented through the addition of an overlay layer onto each as required.

One way of thinking about visual augmented reality is to consider it in terms of inserting objects into the visual field, for example adding an animated monster into a scene, overlaying objects in some way, such as re-coloring or re-texturing them, or transforming them, for example by changing their shape.

EXERCISE: How might you modify an audio / sound based perceptual environment in each of these ways?

ANSWER: Inserted – add a new sound into the audio track, perhaps trying to locate it spatially in the stereo field. Overlaid – if you think of this in terms of texture, this might be like adding echo or reverb to a sound, although this is actually more like changing how we perceive the space the sound is located in. Transformed might be something like pitch-shifting the voice in real time, to make it sound higher pitched, or deeper. I’m not sure if things like noise cancellation would count as a “negative insertion” or a “cancelling overlay”?!

When audio sources are recorded using separate tracks, adding additional effects to them becomes a simple matter. It also provides us with an opportunity to “improve” the appearance of the audio track just as we might “improve” a photograph by retouching it.

Consider, for example, the problem of a singer who can’t sing in tune (much like the model with a bad complexion that needs “fixing” to meet the demands of a fashion magazine…). Can we fix that?

Indeed we can – part of the toolbox in any recording studio will be something that can correct for pitch and help retune an out-of-tune vocal performance.

But vocal performances can also be transformed in other ways, with an actor providing a voice performance, for example, that can then be transformed so that it sounds like a different person. For example, the MorphBox Voice Changer application allows you to create a range of voice profiles that can transform your voice into a range of other voice types.

Not surprising, as the computational power of smartphones increases, this sort of effect has made its way into novelty app form. Once again, it seems as if augmented reality novelty items are starting to appear all around us, even if we don’t necessarily think of them as such as first.

DO: if you have a smart-phone, see if you can find an voice modifying application for it. What features does it offer? TO what extent might you class it as an augmented reality application, and why?

Even if the Camera Never Lies, the Retouched Photo Might…

In Hyper-reality Offline – Creating Videos from Photos, we saw how a single flat image could be transformed in order to provide a range of video effects. In this post, we’ll review some of the other ways in which photographs of real objects may be transformed to slightly less real – or should that be hyper-real – objects, and consider some of the questions such manipulations raise about the authenticity of photographic images.

In 2014, an unsuccessful bill was introduced to the US House of Representatives that sought to introduce controls around “photoshopping”, based on the principle that “altered images [of models’ faces and bodies] can create distorted and unrealistic expectations and understandings of appropriate and healthy weight and body image” (Slate: Legislating Realism). The Bill reappeared in the 114th session of Congress in 2016 as H.R.4445 – Truth in Advertising Act of 2016:

This bill directs the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to submit a report to Congress assessing the prevalence, in advertisements and other media for the promotion of commercial products and services in the United States, of images that have been altered to materially change the appearance and physical characteristics of the faces and bodies of the individuals depicted. The report must contain: (1) an evaluation of the degree to which such use of altered images may constitute an unfair or deceptive act or practice, (2) guidelines for advertisers regarding how the FTC determines whether such use constitutes an unfair or deceptive act or practice, and (3) recommendations reflecting a consensus of stakeholders and experts to reduce consumer harm arising from such use.

OPTIONAL READING: Forsey, Logan A., “Towards a Workable Rubric for Assessing Photoshop Liability” (2013). Law School Student Scholarship. Paper 222.

Photoshopping – the use of digital photograph editors such as Adobe Photoshop – is a form of reality mediation in which a photograph is transformed to “improve it”. In many cases, photoshopped images may be viewed as examples of “hyper-reality” in that no additional information over and above the scene captured in the photograph is introduced, but elements of the scene may be highlighted, or “tidied up”.

As you might expect, the intention behind many advertising campaigns is to present a product in the best possible light whilst at the same time not misrepresenting it, which makes the prospect of using photo-manipulation attractive. The following  promotional video from the marketers at McDonald’s Canada – Behind the scenes at a McDonald’s photo shoot – shows how set dressing and post-production photo manipulation are used to present the product in the best possible light, whilst still maintaining some claims about the “truthfulness” of the final image.

Undoubtedly, many food photographers manipulate reality whilst at the still time being able to argue that the final photograph is a “fair” representation of it. In a similar way, fashion photography relies on the manipulation of “real” models prior to the digital manipulation of their captured likenesses. A behind the scenes video – Dove Evolution – from beauty product manufacturer, Dove, shows just how much transformation of the human model is applied prior to a photo-shoot, as well as the how much digital manipulation is applied after it.

Let’s see in a little more detail how the images can be transformed. One common way of retouching photos is to map a photographed object, which may be a person, onto a two dimensional mesh. Nodes in the mesh map on to points of interest in the image. As the mesh is transformed by dragging around nodes in the mesh, so too is the image, with points of interest tracking the repositioned nodes with the image content in each cell, or grid element, of the mesh being transformed appropriately.

As well as transforming body shapes, faces can be retouched in a similar way.

Surrounded as we are each day by commercially produced images, it’s important to consider the range of ways in which reality might be manipulated before it is presented to us.

EXERCISE: even if we may be a little sceptical around claims of truth in advertising, we typically expect factual documentaries to present a true view of the world, for some definition of truth. In 2015, the BBC were called to account around a documentary that appeared to depict a particular sort of volcano eruption, but that was actually a composited sequence from more than one eruption. See if you can track down one or two reports of the episode. WHat charges did the critics lay, and how did the documentary makers respond? What sort of editorial guidelines does the BBC follow in the production of natural history film-making?


EXERCISE: As well as advertising and documentary making, news journalists may also be tempted to photoshop images for narrative or impact effect. Watch the following video, stopping and pausing the video where appropriate to note the different ways in which the photographs reviewed have been manipulated. To what extent, if any, do you think manipulations of that sort would be justifiable in a news reporting context? 

A post on the Hacker Factor blog – Body By Victoria – describes how a photographic image may be looked at forensically in order to find evidence of photoshopping.

As the Photoshop tools demonstrate, by mapping a photograph onto a mesh, transforming the mesh and then stretching pixel values or in-painting in a context sensitive way, photographic images can be reshaped whilst still maintaining some sort of integrity in the background, at least to the casual observer.

Increasingly, there are similarities between the tools used to create digital objects from scratch, and the tools used to manipulate real world objects captured into digital form. The computer uses a similar form of representation in each case – a mesh – and supports similar sorts of manipulation on each sort of object. As you will see in several other posts, the ability to create photorealistic objects as digital objects from scratch on the one hand, and the ability to capture the form, likeness and behaviour of a physical object into a digital form means that we are truly starting to blur the edges of reality around any image viewed through a screen.